Monday, September 26, 2016

U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) research physicists and engineers from the Plasma Physics Division, working at the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) transmitter facility, Gakona, Alaska, successfully produced a sustained high density plasma cloud in Earth's upper atmosphere.
U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) research physicists and engineers from the Plasma Physics Division, working at the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) transmitter facility, Gakona, Alaska, successfully produced a sustained high density plasma cloud in Earth's upper atmosphere. - See more at: file:///D:/Anna/Desktop/NRL%20Scientists%20Produce%20Densest%20Artificial%20Ionospheric%20Plasma%20Clouds%20Using%20HAARP%20-%20U.S.%20Naval%20Research%20Laboratory.htm#sthash.4SkTmwoy.dpuf
U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) research physicists and engineers from the Plasma Physics Division, working at the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) transmitter facility, Gakona, Alaska, successfully produced a sustained high density plasma cloud in Earth's upper atmosphere. - See more at: file:///D:/Anna/Desktop/NRL%20Scientists%20Produce%20Densest%20Artificial%20Ionospheric%20Plasma%20Clouds%20Using%20HAARP%20-%20U.S.%20Naval%20Research%20Laboratory.htm#sthash.4SkTmwoy.dpuf
U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) research physicists and engineers from the Plasma Physics Division, working at the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) transmitter facility, Gakona, Alaska, successfully produced a sustained high density plasma cloud in Earth's upper atmosphere. - See more at: file:///D:/Anna/Desktop/NRL%20Scientists%20Produce%20Densest%20Artificial%20Ionospheric%20Plasma%20Clouds%20Using%20HAARP%20-%20U.S.%20Naval%20Research%20Laboratory.htm#sthash.4SkTmwoy.dpuf
U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) research physicists and engineers from the Plasma Physics Division, working at the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) transmitter facility, Gakona, Alaska, successfully produced a sustained high density plasma cloud in Earth's upper atmosphere. - See more at: file:///D:/Anna/Desktop/NRL%20Scientists%20Produce%20Densest%20Artificial%20Ionospheric%20Plasma%20Clouds%20Using%20HAARP%20-%20U.S.%20Naval%20Research%20Laboratory.htm#sthash.4SkTmwoy.dpuf
U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) research physicists and engineers from the Plasma Physics Division, working at the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) transmitter facility, Gakona, Alaska, successfully produced a sustained high density plasma cloud in Earth's upper atmosphere. - See more at: file:///D:/Anna/Desktop/NRL%20Scientists%20Produce%20Densest%20Artificial%20Ionospheric%20Plasma%20Clouds%20Using%20HAARP%20-%20U.S.%20Naval%20Research%20Laboratory.htm#sthash.4SkTmwoy.dpuf
U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) research physicists and engineers from the Plasma Physics Division, working at the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) transmitter facility, Gakona, Alaska, successfully produced a sustained high density plasma cloud in Earth's upper atmosphere. - See more at: file:///D:/Anna/Desktop/NRL%20Scientists%20Produce%20Densest%20Artificial%20Ionospheric%20Plasma%20Clouds%20Using%20HAARP%20-%20U.S.%20Naval%20Research%20Laboratory.htm#sthash.4SkTmwoy.dpuf

Wednesday, June 1, 2016

Hacking The Planet


1. What is geoengineering?
Geoengineering is an attempt to avoid or reduce the negative consequences of climate change by directly altering parts of the Earth’s natural system. It’s different from “mitigation” efforts, where people try to reduce emissions of [heat-trapping] greenhouse gases, or preserve natural carbon-dioxide storage or removal mechanisms like forests. It’s also distinct from “adaptation,” which involves dealing with the impacts of climate change.

"Geoengineering is not a cure. At best, it’s a Band-Aid or tourniquet; at worst, it could be a self-inflicted wound."

2. What are some examples of geoengineering?
Geoengineering schemes basically fall into two broad camps. The first involves reducing the amount of the sun’s energy reaching the surface of the planet. This could be done by injecting sulfate particles into the upper atmosphere – essentially mimicking a large volcanic eruption and the cooling that follows. Or injecting sea salt into the lower atmosphere to seed or brighten clouds so that they reflect incoming sunlight away from the planet. Another option might be to increase the reflectivity of large areas of the Earth’s surface by changing the mix of plants and vegetation.
The second main approach involves removing (or boosting the removal of) carbon from the atmosphere – essentially “negative emissions.” This might be achieved by stimulating ecosystems to “mop up” carbon or building large machines to absorb carbon dioxide and store it underground. In addition to slowing the rise in Earth’s temperature, reducing the amount of carbon dioxide accumulating in the air would help keep it from mixing in the oceans, where it makes the waters more acidic and can have catastrophic impacts on marine life and ecosystems. Scientists are already seeing this acidification happen today.

3. What would geoengineering solve, and what would it not solve?
Geoengineering is not a cure. At best, it’s a Band-Aid or tourniquet; at worst, it could be a self-inflicted wound.
By itself, hacking the climate system won’t fix the way society manages the planet, and in fact it can de-incentivize [effective management]. If geoengineering is perceived as a “silver bullet” that offers the illusion of consequence-free carbon pollution, then there’s no incentive to control emissions that are the root cause of the problem. Even if geoengineering could be made to work safely, we would have to continuously ramp it up to keep pace with accelerating emissions – and that’s not sustainable.
The climate has a lot of inertia; once it starts moving in a certain direction it may be difficult to stop. The carbon we are pumping into the atmosphere today is essentially permanent; natural processes take thousands of years to remove it. There may also be irreversible “tipping points” – cliffs, or points of no return – that could cause dramatic, abrupt climate changes like shifts in ocean circulation or irreversible melting of the Greenland ice sheet.
Generally, we don’t understand the risks of geoengineering well. Engineering the planet could make things worse, and it could cause serious social and political issues. All of these things suggest to me that geoengineering should be seen as a highly uncertain insurance policy or emergency response, not a solution.

"By itself, hacking the climate system won’t fix the way society manages the planet, and in fact it can de-incentivize [effective management]"

4. How is JPL involved in geoengineering?

We’re focused on improving our understanding of how the Earth system works, not on doing actual geoengineering. Other groups are addressing questions like: What’s the most efficient way to do cloud seeding? How could you inject aerosols into the stratosphere?
At JPL, we’re interested in working out how key climate processes are connected and how we can use satellite observations to provide policymakers with better information they can use to make objective decisions about geoengineering.
Equally important, we want to identify where limits in observations and scientific understanding preclude reliable assessments of the impact of geoengineering. Understanding the uncertainty is essential.

5. How are you working to inform decision-makers?

By offering them (and the public) better data about the Earth and how it responds to human actions, so that they can objectively weigh the pros and cons of geoengineering.
"Geoengineering should be seen as a highly uncertain insurance policy or emergency response, not a solution."
 

Friday, April 29, 2016

Plasma Cloud


U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) research physicists and engineers from the Plasma Physics Division, working at the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) transmitter facility, Gakona, Alaska, successfully produced a sustained high density plasma cloud in Earth's upper atmosphere.

http://www.nrl.navy.mil/PressReleases/2013/27-13r_Artificial_Plasma_Cloud_HAARP_1200x597.jpg

"Previous artificial plasma density clouds have lifetimes of only ten minutes or less," said Paul Bernhardt, Ph.D., NRL Space Use and Plasma Section. "This higher density plasma 'ball' was sustained over one hour by the HAARP transmissions and was extinguished only after termination of the HAARP radio beam."
These glow discharges in the upper atmosphere were generated as a part of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) sponsored Basic Research on Ionospheric Characteristics and Effects (BRIOCHE) campaign to explore ionospheric phenomena and its impact on communications and space weather.

Using the 3.6-megawatt high-frequency (HF) HAARP transmitter, the plasma clouds, or balls of plasma, are being studied for use as artificial mirrors at altitudes 50 kilometers below the natural ionosphere and are to be used for reflection of HF radar and communications signals.

Past attempts to produce electron density enhancements have yielded densities of 4 x 105 electrons per cubic centimeter (cm3) using HF radio transmissions near the second, third, and fourth harmonics of the electron cyclotron frequency. This frequency near 1.44 MHz is the rate that electrons gyrate around the Earth's magnetic field.

The NRL group succeeded in producing artificial plasma clouds with densities exceeding 9 x 105 electrons cm3 using HAARP transmission at the sixth harmonic of the electron cyclotron frequency.
Optical images of the artificial plasma balls show that they are turbulent with dynamically changing density structures. Electrostatic waves generated by the HAARP radio transmissions are thought to be responsible for accelerating electrons to high enough energy to produce the glow discharge in the neutral atmosphere approaching altitudes of nearly 170 kilometers.

The artificial plasma clouds are detected with HF radio soundings and backscatter, ultrahigh frequency (UHF) radar backscatter, and optical imaging systems. Ground measurements of stimulated electromagnetic emissions provide evidence of the strength and frequency for the electrostatic waves that accelerated ambient electrons to ionizing velocities.

The NRL team is working with collaborators at SRI International, University of Alaska Fairbanks, University of Florida, and BAE Systems on this project to synthesize the observations with parametric interactions theory to develop a comprehensive theory of the plasma cloud generation. The next HAARP campaign, scheduled for early 2013, will include experiments to develop denser, more stable ionization clouds.

NRL Scientists Produce Densest Artificial Ionospheric Plasma Clouds Using HAARP - See more at: file:///D:/Anna/Desktop/NRL%20Scientists%20Produce%20Densest%20Artificial%20Ionospheric%20Plasma%20Clouds%20Using%20HAARP%20-%20U.S.%20Naval%20Research%20Laboratory.htm#sthash.4SkTmwoy.dpufhttp://www.nrl.navy.mil/media/news-releases/2013/nrl-scientists-produce-densest-artificial-ionospheric-plasma-clouds-using-haarp
NRL Scientists Produce Densest Artificial Ionospheric Plasma Clouds Using HAARP - See more at: file:///D:/Anna/Desktop/NRL%20Scientists%20Produce%20Densest%20Artificial%20Ionospheric%20Plasma%20Clouds%20Using%20HAARP%20-%20U.S.%20Naval%20Research%20Laboratory.htm#sthash.4SkTmwoy.dpu
"Previous artificial plasma density clouds have lifetimes of only ten minutes or less," said Paul Bernhardt, Ph.D., NRL Space Use and Plasma Section. "This higher density plasma 'ball' was sustained over one hour by the HAARP transmissions and was extinguished only after termination of the HAARP radio beam."
"Previous artificial plasma density clouds have lifetimes of only ten minutes or less," said Paul Bernhardt, Ph.D., NRL Space Use and Plasma Section. "This higher density plasma 'ball' was sustained over one hour by the HAARP transmissions and was extinguished only after termination of the HAARP radio beam." "Previous artificial plasma density clouds have lifetimes of only ten minutes or less," said Paul Bernhardt, Ph.D., NRL Space Use and Plasma Section. "This higher density plasma 'ball' was sustained over one hour by the HAARP transmissions and was extinguished only after termination of the HAARP radio beam."
"Previous artificial plasma density clouds have lifetimes of only ten minutes or less," said Paul Bernhardt, Ph.D., NRL Space Use and Plasma Section. "This higher density plasma 'ball' was sustained over one hour by the HAARP transmissions and was extinguished only after termination of the HAARP radio beam." artificial plasma density clouds have lifetimes of only ten minutes or less," said Paul Bernhardt, Ph.D., NRL Space Use and Plasma Section. "This higher density plasma 'ball' was sustained over one hour by the HAARP transmissions and was extinguished only after termination of the HAARP radio beam." - See more at: file:///D:/Anna/Desktop/NRL%20Scientists%20Produce%20Densest%20Artificial%20Ionospheric%20Plasma%20Clouds%20Using%20HAARP%20-%20U.S.%20Naval%20Research%20Laboratory.htm#sthash.4SkTmwoy.dpuf

Thursday, April 28, 2016

https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=5&ved=0ahUKEwjuxJK787LMAhUK0GMKHeIhC4UQFgg6MAQ&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.dtic.mil%2Fcgi-bin%2FGetTRDoc%3FAD%3DADA338490&usg=AFQjCNGWwZ4-yC5_GVACkzCCc1acZ1lW6A&cad=rja

Scientists are working on creating a new design for a technology that redefines what the public views as imaginary. Inspired by the well-known Invisibility Cloak from Harry Potter, electrical engineers at the University of California, San Diego have created a new design for their cloaking device, using a Teflon substrate, studded with cylinders of ceramic, that is thinner than any prior development and does not alter the brightness of light around concealed objects. The Teflon has a low refractive index, while the ceramic’s refractive index is higher, which allows light to be dispersed through the sheet without any absorption. Compared to an invisibility cloak, this technology has not only the ability to conceal, but the ability to increase optical communication signal speed and to collect solar energy. The goal of this design is to create devices that make any object appear invisible by scattering the electromagnetic waves, such as light and radar, off an object making it less detectable to these wave frequencies.

Metamaterial that surrounds the target is able to force light to bypass a region of space, which effectively “cloaks” the object, making it isolated from incoming electromagnetic waves. Prior developments to this technology needed many layers in order to cover an object, resulting in a very thick layer that enclosed the object. With this new, super- thin design, this technology has the capability to better hide the three-
dimensionality and shadow of an object. Additionally, this new cloaking device addresses the issue with the brightness of the space behind them. The University of California has achieved a cloak that won’t reduce any intensity when light is reflected so the concealed object will remain undetectable and will appear completely flat to an observer’s eyes. “Invisibility may seem like magic at first, but its underlying concepts are familiar to everyone. 
 
All it requires is a clever manipulation of our perception,” said Boubacar Kanté, a professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the UC San Diego Jacobs School of Engineering and the senior author of the study. “Full invisibility still seems beyond reach today, but it might become a reality in the near future thanks to recent progress in cloaking devices.” Having the ability to create ultimate stealth protection for anything over a battlefield or war zone provides enormous military advantage over the adversary. In theory, creating a cloaking device would be used to conceal larger objects. This cloaking device would be valuable to many technologies, including unmanned air vehicles (Lavs) due to the capability to disappear from view and leaving no visual, electronic or infrared signature for an enemy to detect. Creating the effect of an invisibility cloak offers a real-world solution to concealment, which can provide the military with air superiority. While this cloak has numerous applications for the military, this technology will create a ripple effect beyond the battlefield that will improve the performance of other diverse applications. “Doing whatever we want with light waves is really exciting,” said Kanté. “Using this technology, we can do more than make things invisible. We can change the way light waves are being reflected at will and ultimately focus a large area of sunlight onto a solar power tower, like what a solar
concentrator does. We also expect this technology to have applications in optics, interior design and art.”

http://science.dodlive.mil/2015/08/30/invisible-uavs-for-the-military-ill-have-some/

Uninhabited Aerospace Vehicles

Uninhabited aerospace vehicles (UAV) are routinely used for weather-modification operations. By cross-referencing desired attack times with wind and thunderstorm forecasts and the French system probatoire d' observation de la terre (SPOT) satellite's projected orbit, the weather force support element (WFSE) generates mission profiles for each UAV. The WFSE guides each UAV using near-real-time information from a networked sensor array.

The WFSE has the necessary sensor and communication capabilities to observe, detect, and act on weather-modification requirements to support US military objectives. These capabilities are part of an advanced battle area system that supports the war-fighting commander in chief (CINC). In our scenario, the CINC tasks the WFSE to conduct storm intensification and concealment operations. The WFSE models the atmospheric conditions to forecast, with 90 percent confidence, the likelihood of successful modification using airborne cloud generation and seeding. 

http://www.au.af.mil/au/2025/volume3/chap15/v3c15-1.htm
http://csat.au.af.mil/2025/volume3/vol3ch15.pdf